Barash, Paul G, Bruce F. Cullen, and Robert K. Stoelting. Clinical Anesthesia. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1989.
•The higher the concentration of free drug or unoccupied receptor, the more drug-receptor complex is formed
•The percentage of receptors occupied is not equivalent to maximal effect produced
•Most receptor systems have more receptors than needed to produce the maximum drug effect
•Low doses produce relatively small effects, once effects occur, small increases in dose produce a relatively large change in effect
•Ceiling effect occurs at the upper dose range
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